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Masayendisiti akasika mapurasitiki akaenzana nesimbi - yakasimba asi isingaremi.Plastics, iyo makemikari dzimwe nguva anodana mapolymers, ikirasi yemamorekuru akareba-cheni akaumbwa nezvikamu zvipfupi zvinodzokorora zvinonzi monomers.Kusiyana nemapolima ekare esimba rimwe chete, zvinhu zvitsva chete. Inouya mu membrane form.Iyo zvakare ine 50 times more airtight pane purasitiki isingapindike pamusika.Chimwe chinocherechedzwa chepolymer iyi kuve nyore kwayo synthesis.Iyo nzira, inoitika pakudziya kwekamuri, inoda zvinhu zvakachipa chete, uye iyo polymer inogona kugadzirwa muhombe mumashizha makuru anongokora nanometers.Vatsvakurudzi vanotaura zvavakawana Feb. 2 mujenari Nature.
Nyaya iri kutaurwa iyi inonzi polyamide, threaded network yeamide molecular units (amides ndiwo mapoka emakemikari enitrogen anonamirwa kumaatomu e<em>oxygen-bonded carbon). Mapolymer akadai anosanganisira Kevlar, faibha inoshandiswa kugadzira mabhati asingapindi bara, uye Nomex, moto- Kufanana neKevlar, ma molecules e polyamide muzvinhu zvitsva akabatanidzwa kune mumwe nemumwe nehydrogen zvisungo pamwe chete nehurefu hwemaketani avo, izvo zvinowedzera simba rose rezvinhu.
"Vanonamatira pamwe chete seVelcro," akadaro munyori anotungamirira Michael Strano, MIT kemikari injiniya.Kubvarura zvinhu zvinoda kwete kungoputsa munhu mumwe nomumwe cheni dzema molecular, asiwo kukunda giant intermolecular hydrogen bonds iyo inopinda mupolymer bundle yose.
Mukuwedzera, mapolymers matsva anogona kungoita mazhenje.Izvi zvinoita kuti zvinhu zvive nyore kugadzirisa, sezvo zvinogona kugadzirwa kuva mafirimu matete kana kushandiswa sechinhu chitete-firimu pamusoro pekuputira.Mapolymer echinyakare anowanzokura semaketani ane mutsara, kana kuti kakawanda bazi uye chinongedzo mumativi matatu, zvisinei negwara.Asi mapolymer eStrano anokura nenzira yakasarudzika mu2D kuita nanosheets.
“Unokwanisa here kuunganidza pabepa?Zvinoitika, kazhinji, haugone kuzviita kusvika basa redu, "akadaro Strano." Saka, takawana nzira itsva.Mune iri basa richangoburwa, timu yake yakakunda chipingamupinyi kuita kuti kuunganidzwa kwemativi maviri uku kugoneke.
Chikonzero nei polyaramides ine planar chimiro ndechekuti polymer synthesis inosanganisira nzira inonzi autocatalytic templating: nepo polymer ichirebesa uye inonamira kune monomer zvidhinha zvekuvaka, iyo inokura polymer network inoita kuti vanozotevera monomers vangosanganiswa munzira kwayo kusimbisa mubatanidzwa we two.dimensional structure.Vatsvakurudzi vakaratidza kuti vaigona kupfekedza polima mumhinduro zviri nyore pamachifukidziro kuti vagadzire maramu akareba masendimita asingasviki mananomita akakora.Iyo ingangoita miriyoni mukukobvu kwepepa remuhofisi renguva dzose.
Kuti vaone mashandiro emuchina wepolymer material, vatsvakurudzi vakayera simba rinodiwa pakuboora maburi mubepa rakarembera rezvinhu zvine tsono yakanaka. Iyi polyamide yakaoma zvechokwadi kupfuura yechinyakare mapolymer senaironi, jira rinoshandiswa kugadzira parachuti. zvinotora simba rakapetwa kaviri kusunungura iyi polyamide yakasimba zvikuru sesimbi yehukobvu hwakafanana.Maererano naStrano, chinhu ichi chinogona kushandiswa sechidziviriro chinoputira pamusoro pesimbi, semotokari yemotokari, kana sefa yekuchenesa mvura. Mukushanda kwekupedzisira, iyo yakanakira sefa membrane inoda kuve yakatetepa asi yakasimba zvakakwana kuti ikwanise kumirisana nekudzvinyirirwa pasina kudonha diki, zvinosvibisa zvinosvibisa mudura redu rekupedzisira - kukwana kwakakwana kune iyi polyamide zvinhu.
Mune ramangwana, Strano anotarisira kuwedzera nzira yepolymerization kune akasiyana mapolymer kupfuura iyi analogi yeKevlar." Mapolymers akatitenderedza," akadaro.Fungidzira uchishandura akawanda akasiyana mapolymers, kunyangwe ekunze anogona kuitisa magetsi kana mwenje, kuita mafirimu matete anogona kuvhara akasiyana siyana, anowedzera. Akadaro Stano.
Munyika yakakomberedzwa nemapurasitiki, nzanga ine chikonzero chekufara pamusoro peimwe polymer itsva ine michina miitiro isingawanzoitiki, Strano akadaro. Iyi aramid yakasimba zvakanyanya, zvinoreva kuti tinogona kutsiva mapurasitiki emazuva ese, kubva pendi kuenda kumabhegi kusvika kurongedza chikafu, ine zvinhu zvishoma uye zvakasimba.Strano akawedzera kuti kubva pakuona kwekusimudzira, iyi super-yakasimba 2D polymer inhanho munzira chaiyo yekusunungura nyika kubva mupurasitiki.
Shi En Kim (sekudanwa kwaanowanzonzi Kim) munyori wesainzi akaberekerwa kuMalaysia akazvimirira uye Popular Science Spring 2022 mupepeti wenhau. Akanyora zvakawanda pamusoro pemisoro inobvira pakushandiswa kwedandemutande—vanhu kana dandemutande pacharo—kusvika kune vanonhonga marara. muchadenga.
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Nguva yekutumira: May-19-2022